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How You Can Overcome A Driving Phobia

The idea of learning how to drive excites many and this is an experience most people look forward to. Check online for reviews about where to get the best driving lessons in Malden before you enroll in a driving school. Just because you have completed your driving course and have a valid license, it does not mean you are ready to be on the road yet. There are cases of a few people who love the idea of driving but they are terrified at the thought of driving alone on a highway or urban roads. If you have fears about driving on your own as a novice driver, here are some tips on how you can overcome the fear of driving.

Have someone next to you

Having the fear of driving does not mean that you are not a good driver; it simply means you are anxious about being on the road without someone near you. Start by asking a family member or friend to accompany you while you drive short distances just to make you feel at ease. They don’t have to be licensed drivers themselves to keep you company as you drive around. With time you get used to driving around and soon enough you find you have the confidence to drive alone. Don’t shy away to ask for a company for as long as you need to until you are sure your fear driving is gone.

Have a professional instructor teach you how to drive

Most new drivers are afraid to drive because they have no idea what to expect while driving. Make sure you enroll in a good driving school with a good reputation to take up your driving course. In a driving school, you get actual driving time which means you get to sit behind the wheel under the guidance of a professional. This helps to ease the tension and you become confident with time. These instructors teach you important skills on driving and how to overcome your fears while driving.

Start by driving around during daytime

If you are afraid to drive around, ensure that you start by driving short distances during day time. Day time allows you to see clearly where you are driving to. Driving during night time can be challenging at times even for the most experienced drivers. You have to be keen and keep a look out for pedestrians, animals and other drivers. If you have a driving phobia, driving at night can worsen the situation. Once you are confident enough you can drive without being afraid, you can then start driving at night to overcome the fear of night driving.

Face your fears

Some people get the fear of driving after experiencing a horrific road accident or witnessing carnage. Such traumatic experiences can make one fear being on the road. You need to face your fears and get back on the road as soon as possible. The longer one takes to get behind a steering wheel after an accident, the longer it takes for them to overcome driving phobias. You can also seek professional help from therapists to help you overcome your fear of driving by getting over your past experiences.

Use music to allay your phobia

Listening to music while driving is considered to be distracting but this does not apply to all drivers. You can try listening to your favorite music while driving. Music is known to soothe one and helps one to relax more. Try to listen to slow and soft music rather than loud and fast music. You can also listen to motivational CD’s to help you get over your fear of driving. Avoid listening to high volumes as this may distract you while driving.

What Are The Differences Between Driver Education And Driver Training?

These two terms are often used interchangeably. For most companies, especially those operating fleets, you can find the two terms used to entail the entire scope of driver education, both theoretically and practically. As much as it seems like they mean the same thing, there are distinct differences when we narrow down the specifics.

Knowing and understanding the differences between the two is important, as it will give you an extended view of what the road is like, and will help you become an effective defensive driver.

What is the general difference?

One of the biggest distinctions between the two is that education entails the ‘what’, while training entails the ‘how’. On the surface you might not see a clear distinction, but when you look closely at the two, you will start realizing it.

Taking a look at what most of us were taught in high school concerning driving, the course would give a general view of the rules of the road. We would be given some course work on paper and learn a few signs here and there and sit an exam at the end of the course. Your high school’s Driver Ed program would not end at this point. It would be futile for anyone to end such studies in class without really getting in a cockpit and actually driving.

Safety education thus teaches the student about the seriousness of the road. It gives a depth on the importance of following the rules and the consequences of not doing so. It also tests you on this, and awards you if you pass the test. Safety training on the other hand places you behind the wheels of a car. It teaches you the various dynamics of the car. Methods like how far to turn the wheel, how to use your mirrors, checking the engine, reacting to emergencies and the like are taught in the training program.

Which of the two is appropriate: Driver education or driver training?

None can stand alone on its own. Educating a driver about the road without training him is useless; and so is doing a training program without having the driver educated. This is even worse when a driver is just about to be hired by a company, say to become part of the company’s fleet drivers.

The starting point for any driver on the road must be safety education. If the driver is to be hired by a company for its fleet, the Driver’s Ed course in high school becomes too shallow for such a person. The reason is that there are more responsibilities given to such personnel than can be handled by a novice driver.

Safety education concepts

Here the driver is taught more than just following the rules to avoid tickets and fines. Defensive driving comes into play. He is taught to anticipate danger at any given time.  He is aware that the ‘other guy’ may do something out of the unexpected and taught how to react when something like that happens. Therefore, it all begins before stepping on the pedals.

Safety training concepts

Now that you are able to have a view of how the road is like, it is equally important to know how to check you vehicle’s roadworthiness. The practical bit here is put to the test. How fast can you change a busted wheel? Do you know how to check on your oil and water? Do you understand all the indicators and the lights on your dashboard and what each of them mean? Do you understand the engine well enough to know which gear you are in for an automatic transmission system?

At the end of the day, working together both hand in hand, the combination of safety training and safety education is a must-do for drivers on our roads.

Defensive Driving: What You Should Know About Driving In The Dark

I am certain there are things that are more complex than juggling chain saws, and for some, driving during the night is one of them. The lack or the total ignorance of once night vision is a high cause of night time car accidents, and the disaster is on the rise.

This is the reason why many states and even nations are taking up huge highway electrification projects to give drivers a better time on the roads at night. Other than that, there is a constant call to understand the measures that one needs to undertake while driving in the dark. Here are a few things every driver needs to know.

Always drive slowly

It is prudent to give yourself more time to process and react to obstacles once you meet them on the highway. Driving slowly will help you do so. Speed limits are not a law enacted by highway authorities to have you pressured while on the road, no! They are a limit to the extent to which you should drive, and an indicator that if you surpass that limit, you are endangering both you and the other drivers.

Give yourself time to evaluate the obstacles that you may not be aware of. Some of these are like bumps, bends, crossing areas, junctions and cross-roads that are not too visible at night.

Get an eye examination

As much as it may not be a priority, an eye checkup may be a savior on the road. When visibility reduces, the risk of an accident increases. You may have noticed that it is even harder to distinguish between colors when you are driving in the dark or in low light. This may not be caused by an exterior issue, but may be an eye-problem issue. Do have them checked and wear you glasses if you must.

Do not stare

If you are fond of lights, you are not bound to be a very good driver. People who dazzle at on-coming vehicles in the dark may lose their concentration on the road much too easily. When such disruptions occur, most people tend to via off the road, either towards the oncoming or far away from the oncoming, to an extent that they steer off the road. Keep your eyes focused and you will not get the temporary blind spot one gets after steering at bright lights.

Have your vitamins

Yes! As part of eye health, drivers are always encouraged to be faithful to their vitamin intake. Vitamin A in particular is good for night vision. Multivitamin supplements can be one recommendation from the doctor if you are having problems with night vision. Of course, we all know that those good green vegetables are rich in vitamins.

Keep off the road if you have fatigue

While on the road, it is important to have enough rest. Fatigue will always impair you skills on the road, blurring your judgment when something dangerous is about to happen while on the road.

Taking care of the car 

A number of times, you may have noticed how the glare from the oncoming car can blind your vision. This is a normal occurrence. However, keeping your windshield clean will avert some of the risks that come along with this. The glare is temporal, but shouldn’t be made worse by a dirty wind screen.

In line with that, it is always important as well to keep your main beam on, only when you are the only driver on the road. Always remember to dim the light when there is an oncoming vehicle. This keeps the glare at bay and the oncoming driver can at least have a better vision of your car’s edge and know how best to react.

Does Tire Tread Really Matter During Driving?

Your car tires are just as important as the car engine – this may sound like a bad comparison, but it isn’t. That is in fact why most driving schools ensure learners know about tire maintenance before they can take their driving tests. There is a reason behind that. First off, car tires always succumb to wear and tear over time. Then there is the fact the unexpected happens sometimes as one drives. One is then forced to change the tire. It therefore becomes important for you to learn all you can about tires. How do you inflate them? When should you change them? Why should you change them? All these and more are just but some of the things you may learn at a good driving school in Malden. But before then, read on to stay ahead of your fellow learners.

Examining your tires

You may at some point, be tempted to drive with bald tires. It could be that you did not notice your tires needed to be changed on time or you just do not have the money to buy new tires. Either way, driving with bald tires is just as dangerous as driving in foggy conditions with your lights off. Your best bet is to simply examine your tire treads at least once a month. Then always remember that improper inflation, speed, poor alignment and hard cornering always result in wear and tear before time.

How to check for bald tires

The tread of a tire should never be less than 1/16 of an inch.  This is the thumb rule that most car owners ignore. It snowy or wet conditions it be ideal to have a double of the aforementioned figure. You can always use a gauge to find out the depth of you tire tread. There is however, an easy way to approximate the depth of your tire treads, and it will literally cost you a penny.

The Lincoln Penny Test

You will need a penny stamped with Abraham Lincoln’s face to conduct this test. Insert the coin upside down into the tread. Make sure the top of Abraham Lincoln’s head goes first into the tread so as to get an accurate reading. If the top part of Abraham’s head is covered by the tread, then the tire is safe and still usable. It simply has enough tread left. Not so if the head is still from any angle. That simply means you have to replace the tire. Be sure to be also on the lookout for punctures, cracks, cuts, splits and bulges. All these are flaws that can be easily seen while inspecting the tire for wear and tear.

Tread wear indicator bars

New tires have tread-wear indicators designed to help your check on tread. If the tire is for instance worn out, then a flat rubber will appear on the tire. The rubber will be perpendicular to the tread’s direction. So if you see more than rubber bar on your tire, you know it’s time to replace the tire. You can also be keen on the sound your tires produce. A squealing, humming noise as the tire rotates is always a clear sign that you should change the tires.

Driving with bald tires

There are instances where you really have no choice but to drive with bald tires. Drive at an average speed but only for a while. Keep a clear distance between you and the next car as well as braking with bald tires can be hard. Lastly, invest in quality tires from tire brands that are reputable and known for giving car owners value for their money.

How To Prepare Your Vehicle For The Rainy Season

Driving through the rain may sound simple, but it is not. It can easily escalate stress and anxiety especially if you are just fresh from a driving school. This can in turn put you and your passengers in danger. Your best bet is to therefore take all the necessary precautions before driving. That is because weather conditions, whether extreme or mild, always call for accurate judgement skills. Common sense may also play a big role if one is to be certain of safe navigation through tricky weather conditions. So what exactly does it take to drive through a storm or even a hurricane?

Pre-monsoon inspection

Your tires will at some point become bald or just lose their grip. This is mostly because of wear and tear. You therefore have to make plans to change your tires regularly. Then always keep in mind that absence of friction on your tires will always negate the effect of your car’s brakes. This will create high chances of both aquaplaning and hydroplaning. The only way to beat such setbacks is to buy spare tires before the rainy season. If possible, replace all tires before monsoon sets in. This may cost you, but you won’t regret it. You will after all, be keeping safety on top of your priority list during the season.

Changing wipers

There is no way you can drive through wet conditions without functional wipers. That would be outright suicidal. That said and done, make plans to inspect your wipers before setting off for a long road trip. Then note that the normal lifespan of most wipers is approximately 5500 miles. After that, they tend to wear down or completely break down. Older wipers are worse because they turn brittle and incapable or shifting rain water off the windshield. This brings up poor visibility issues and increases chances of one getting involved in an accident. Fortunately, there is always something you can do to save yourself from an unpleasant surprise occasioned by dysfunctional wipers. Simply keep an additional set of wipers in your trunk.

Old rubber linings

There is something about rubber and too much exposure to the sun that should get you concerned. Rubber simply becomes weak when exposed to the sun or even heat for a long time. This simply means that you should consider changing the rubber lining of your windshield and doors at least once every three years. That way, you can prevent leakage of rainwater and keep rust at bay.

Using water repellents

Not so many people consider use of water repellents as important. They are of course important. All you need to do is spray your windshield with a thin layer of a water repellent solution before the monsoon season. The solution is stain free and always goes a long way to improve visual clarity.

Replacing car parts

Most driving lessons in Malden will highlight that learning drivers should learn a thing or two about important car parts replacements. You will need to learn what it takes to replace defective components on time. It may be up to however, to learn a few things on your own later. The good thing however is the fact that you can always take advantage of your driving instructor and ask him or her one or two things about all the important replacements one must take into account before the rainy seasons. These include broken windshield replacements, electronic central locking system maintenance, window regulating mechanism and more.

Speed

This could be the first thing you will learn in your driving lesson – speed is dangerous. It is lethal in wet and foggy conditions. The rule here is simple, drive slowly and have your fog lights on so as to ensure other motorists see you. Remember, safety first!

How To Drive Safely When There Are Big Trucks Sharing The Road

When you look at a great number of driving tips, you will notice that “patience” and “awareness” are words that mostly appear especially when advice is given for driving on roads that have big trucks. For a fact, these two virtues come in handy when you find yourself in a road with big trucks. This is because it is important to drive safely when the big trucks are around. You do not want to get involved in a nasty accident. In light of that, here is a look at some of the most effective tips that can help you drive safely when you encounter big trucks.

Do not take chances

Most drivers will feel inclined to speed up and cut a big truck off just when it is about to move into their lane (to avoid getting behind it). While you may have the upper hand of getting ahead of the truck and avoiding any delays or obstructions, this move actually puts you in danger. This is because a truck does not have the ability to hit the brakes fast as an ordinary car. That means that if you abruptly cut ahead of a big truck and then make a halt, you are likely to be involved in a serious accident. Therefore, you are better off not taking chances. If anything, try putting up with the inconvenience to avoid nasty accidents.

Passing carefully

With big trucks in the picture, it is important to give more space than you do with other automobiles when making a normal pass. A good point of reference is the rig front. Ensure that the rig front is clearly visible in your rear-view mirror before going back to the truck’s lane. The whole point of passing carefully is to avoid a scenario where a truck driver is forced to brake abruptly. Therefore, it is important to be particularly careful when passing big trucks as recommended by professionals teaching in an advanced driving school in Malden.

Looking out for the turns

When it comes to turns, it is always advisable to operate under the assumption that the driver of the big truck cannot entirely see you. This is because professional truck drivers may see the need of swinging wide to the left or right so they can effectively make a right or left turn. That means that any attempt to squeeze directly beside or behind them could result in a collision.

Since the last thing you want is an accident of any sort, it is important to exercise patience and wait to see where the truck is going to turn before making a move. Moreover, you should allow the truck enough space when it makes a turn.

Waiting when the truck is reversing

In many cases, due to their size, trucks cannot avoid but block or distract traffic when reversing into a side-street or a driveway. In that case, you should never try to drive behind a truck when it is reversing or preparing to reverse. Attempting to drive around the rear of the truck easily puts you in one of the truck’s blind spot, which increases the chances of being squeezed into a corner by the truck. Furthermore, a truck could actually be avoiding danger on the other side.

Whenever you are driving your car, it is important to observe caution especially when you come across big trucks. These are useful tips that can help you navigate roads occupied by big trucks safely without getting involved in any sort of accident. Most importantly, it is advisable to always exercise patience as it goes a long way to avoid potential accidents.

You Should Know These Laws That Pertain To Using The Cellphone When Driving

It is not uncommon to see drivers taking calls or actually texting while driving their cars. The habit has significantly grown over the years prompting, various states to go on a crackdown due to safety concerns. In light of safety concerns, quite a number of states, municipalities and the like have actually placed bans on certain uses of cellphones when driving. These include cellphone uses by novice drivers, which can become a serious driving hazard.

Debate on safety

Survey indicates that nearly 25% of accidents that occur at a given time are a result of driver inattention. The question is does the phone really distract a driver? Well, various studies reveal different things. Some reveal that making or answering phone calls when driving causes distraction and leads to accidents. Others suggest that actual phone conservation is the leading culprit particularly if the driver is emotionally attached.

You may wonder whether the use hands-free devices are an exception when it comes to distraction. The fact of the matter is that they are not any safer as compared to hand-held devices. This is because many drivers spend a lot of time fiddling with either the headphones or earphones trying to make them work better.

Knowing laws on use of cellphones when driving

Apparently, the debate over safety concerns has prompted a significant number of states, local municipalities and other relevant parties to impose bans on certain types of mobile use when driving. Here is a look at some of these laws:

State bans on cellphone use

It is very evident that a good number of states have actually outlawed the use of mobile devices when driving. This particularly applies to certain types of drivers depending on the situations that they are involved in on a daily basis. However, a few exceptions can be made as in the case of emergencies where parties such as medical personnel, fire department among others are involved.

Texting 

A significant number of states have actually banned texting while driving for all drivers. That means that if you are found texting while driving your car, you will be pulled over for a primary offence. Therefore, it is best to avoid texting as long these laws exist.

Use of handheld mobile devices

With regard to the use of handheld cellphones, a good number of states have set laws that prohibit drivers from using their devices when driving. That means that these states actually allow basic enforcement of an offense. In that case, a police officer can stop you if you are using your cellphone while driving.

Novice automobile drivers

There are also a number of states that have put in place special driving laws that outline how drivers still learning to drive, for example students at a driving school in Maiden, should operate while on the road. Novice drivers include individuals who merely possess a learner’s permit especially the ones under the age of 18.These States do not allow drivers under the age of 18 to use any type of communication gadget when driving. That simply puts that the law essentially allows primary enforcement.

School bus drivers

In this regard, a significant number of states have banned the use of cellphone especially when passengers are present in the bus. This aims at ensuring the safety of children and other passengers is not compromised due to reckless driving resulting from use of cellular devices.

These are some of the laws that essentially pertain to the use of cellphones when driving. There are other laws that also deal with cellular use when driving. However, they vary depending on the State. It is important to ensure that you know the state laws regarding the use of cellphone when driving to avoid being pulled over for a primary offence.

What It Takes To Stay Awake While Driving

Driving, just like a regular job, can come along with its own fair share of stress. You sometimes find it hard to stay awake as you drive because you are either too tired after work or you are under medication that causes drowsiness. Logic will tell you for a fact that you cannot and should not drive in light of the aforementioned circumstances. But what happens when you really have no choice but to drive? There are, as you are about to find out, a few tips you can consider to help you stay awake. Read on to learn more.

Sleep well

Get enough rest if you plan to cover a long distance on the road. Experts recommend sleeping for 8 to 9 hours the night before a long journey. That way, your brain will not be strained the next day as you drive to focus on the road and to stay away. Then if it happens by any chance that you still feel sleepy the next day as you drive, pull off to safe spot and take a power nap of at least an hour. The nap should help you to re-energize yourself and keep you awake.

Eat less before driving

This is where so many drivers get it wrong. Most assume that one should eat to a full stomach before setting off for a long journey. Nothing can be further from the truth than such an assumption because you certainly won’t stay awake. Your brain will be forced to multitask as you drive. That is, it will have to help in digestion and at the same time help you stay awake. The end result could be a light headache and fatigued feeling creeping in. Your best bet is to therefore take a light meal before driving. Be sure to also avoid carbohydrates as they can easily make you feel sleepy during and after digestion because of sugar rush.

Sip water

Water is one of the best ways to cool down as you drive. It will help you stay awake and make you feel refreshed throughout the journey. There is one caution though as far as using water to stay awake is concerned – see to it that the route you are taking has enough rest rooms. Then sip water only when the road ahead is clear.

Snack

Always carry with your light snacks before a long journey. You won’t feel hungry or bored as you drive. Watch the snacks you choose though. Go for low carb and high protein snacks as they are known to help one feel energized and alert.

Have company

This is perhaps one of the best ways to stay awake and alert during a long journey. With a loved one by your side, you can strike a good conversation to engage the brain and keep your awake. It gets much better if the person you are with knows how to drive because you can periodically switch places throughout the journey.

Engage your ears

Find something to listen to as your drive. It could be a playlist of your favorite songs or an audio book. Be moderate with music though. Blasting it can easily mean that you may get distracted. Simply put whatever you are listening on average volume.

Consider an extra class

You might want to consider a new short course on advanced driving in Malden if driving longer hours is something you may have to do on a regular job. The short course will help you learn more about defensive driving in some instances how to stay awake during a long journey. Something else you might want to consider for purposes of staying awake as you drive is to keep your car windows open.

6 Mistakes That New Drivers Make And How To Avoid Them

It is strange how everyone seems to agree that good people may die young because of poor driving. That might be a general assumption but however, it has some truth in it – most car accidents today whether or not they involve young people always have something to do with poor driving. That is not everything though – the same accidents are always linked with new drivers who feel that following basic road rules is too much of a burden to bear.

Others take it as a reverse psychology kind of game. They see a stop sign and do the exact opposite – they go on driving. So the next time you see a road sign, take it seriously. At the end of the day, there is nothing entertaining, romantic or even funny about having to dispose what is left of your value priced car into a scrapyard. Simply be a diligent driver and while at it, avoid the following mistakes that most new drivers make.

Using the phone

It is hard to understand why motorists tend to think that if they cannot talk on the phone while driving, then they can text. Texting while you drive is in fact, more dangerous than talking on the phone. Your best bet is to keep your phone away completely as you drive. Stop at a safe spot and respond to a text or call if you really have to use your phone while on the road.

Speeding

Teens, more than any other age, tend to speed all the time. This leads to yet another obvious statistic – that 90% of accidents that occur as a result of speeding involve young people. You do not have to be a statistic so be patient and drive at a moderate speed.

Tailgating

Discipline is all one needs to avoid tailgating. Think of it this way; you cannot see anything that the driver in front of you sees. With that in mind, anything that the driver in front of you does is unpredictable to you. There is also the fact that most drivers require at least 130 feet to come to a complete stop from 50mph.This simply means that the driver behind you has little time to hit the brakes as soon as you suddenly stop because of the car in front.

Driving under the influence

Again, this has much to do with young people. They lose their inhibitions and put their lives on the line. Fortunately, it is easy to avoid the problem. A good teen driving school in Malden can help your young loved one to avoid driving under the influence. Keep in mind though that you also have a role to play as far as teaching your teen son or daughter a thing or two about the dangers of driving under the influence. Simply explain to him or her that no matter how strong willed and fast one thinks he or she can be, alcohol and marijuana will always lower reaction time and increase callousness.

Seat belt etiquette

No one really knows why new drivers often have a problem observing basic seat belt rules. Most experts suspect that new drivers who do not wear seat belts are often under pressure to prove to others that they are ‘skilled’ when it comes to taking risks while driving. Avoid such shows of bravado as they more often than not, result to accidents and in some cases, death. If you have a young person attending a driving school or about to attend one, let them learn from you. Show them by example that one should not ignite a car without first putting on the seatbelts.

Panic

As a driver, you may face an extreme situation while on the road. It could be a traffic snarl up because of an accident or even a mild storm as you drive. The worst thing you can do in such situations is to panic. Simply be calm. Then if and when possible, consider taking a short course on defensive driving.

5 Types Of Universal Hand Signals For Motorists

One of the first things you will learn in a theory driving class is how to use hand signals when driving. The signals may at first seem irrelevant but as you go on learning, you will get to see and appreciate the importance of hand signals. You will learn how the signals were developed as important tools of non-verbal communication. Your instructor should be able to explain to you proper use of hand signals brings about clarity in action, arrests ambiguity and maintains safety. Finally, you will learn that the hand signals are universal. They cut across different road users, from cyclists and pedestrians all the way to drivers and motor cyclists. Read on to learn more about the most important hand signals and why shouldn’t take any of them for granted.

Left and right turn

It all depends with where the driver’s seat is placed. If for instance the seat is on the left hand side, you will use the left arm to indicate signals. The position changes from one country to another depending on a country’s traffic rules. Most driving lessons in Malden insist on learning how to drive both left and right hand driven vehicles for this reason. Mastering the basics when driving either cars will in the end mean you won’t have problems driving in a foreign country.

Directions

To turn left, gently extend your left arm out of the window. Your palm should face the road ahead to enable the cars behind you see the back of your hand and correctly interpret your hand signal. Then to turn right, slowly place the upper part of your right arm on the window base and gently lift your forearm towards the sky. The back of your hand should be clearly seen by all the vehicles behind you.

 Stopping and slowing down

The aim here is to of course, indicate that you intend to slow down or stop. Simply extend your left arm out of the window then place the upper part on the window base. The lower part of your forearm should face the ground so that your palm can be easily seen by the immediate vehicle behind you.

The obstacle signal

This is perhaps one of the most important hand signals you will learn about. The signal can save the life of the motorist behind you or spell doom. Its aim is to indicate that there is an obstacle or a dangerous foreign object on the road. Your signal should be clear enough to pass across the message that one should slow down or avoid the obstacle on the road altogether. Extend your right or left arm depending on the vehicle you drive and point at the obstacle with your finger fully extended.

Requesting driver behind to reduce speed or to stop

Speed is always an issue while on the road. Fortunately, you can use hand signals to request the driver behind to reduce speed. The signal can come in handy when your tail and break lights fail. Open the palm of your left or right hand depending on which side of the car you’re driving from.  Your palm should face the road. Push it up and down slowly until the driver behind you slows down. To request the driver to stop, make the palm of your hand face directly face the oncoming driver.

Points to note

Hand signals are not meant for just automobile drivers only. They are meant to aid other road users as well. Remember it is all about safety. You can, for instance, warn a cyclist behind you about an obstacle on the road or that you want to turn left or right.